An integrated directional coupler is designed for a bidirectional communication on a single waveguide by separating both data streams within individual branches. Thereby, an adjustment of the numerical aperture of the transmitting branch is a promising optimization approach. As the couplers are manufactured by a field-assisted diffusion process the numerical aperture is directly related to […]
The field-assisted ion-exchange process for manufacturing integrated optical couplers is multivariate. For this reason, a precise prediction of the optical propagation characteristics of manufactured devices is needed. Two numerical calculation methods are compared with measured results for an integrated coupler to assess its applicability for a precise prediction.